Golestan University of Medical Sciences Repository

Individual and Combined Effects of Environmental Risk Factors for Esophageal Cancer Based on Results From the Golestan Cohort Study

Sheikh, M. and Poustchi, H. and Pourshams, A. and Etemadi, A. and Islami, F. and Khoshnia, M. and Gharavi, A. and Hashemian, M. and Roshandel, G. and Khademi, H. and Zahedi, M. and Abedi-Ardekani, B. and Boffetta, P. and Kamangar, F. and Dawsey, S.M. and Pharaoh, P.D. and Abnet, C.C. and Day, N.E. and Brennan, P. and Malekzadeh, R. (2019) Individual and Combined Effects of Environmental Risk Factors for Esophageal Cancer Based on Results From the Golestan Cohort Study. Gastroenterology, 156 (5). pp. 1416-1427.

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Background & Aims: Northeast Iran has one of the highest reported rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) worldwide. Decades of investigations in this region have identified some local habits and environmental exposures that increase risk. We analyzed data from the Golestan Cohort Study to determine the individual and combined effects of the major environmental risk factors of ESCC. Methods: We performed a population-based cohort of 50,045 individuals, 40 to 75 years old, from urban and rural areas across Northeast Iran. Detailed data on demographics, diet, lifestyle, socioeconomic status, temperature of drinking beverages, and different exposures were collected using validated methods, questionnaires, and physical examinations, from 2004 through 2008. Participants were followed from the date of enrollment to the date of first diagnosis of esophageal cancer, date of death from other causes, or date of last follow-up, through December 31, 2017. Proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95 confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between different exposures and ESCC. Results: During an average 10 years of follow-up, 317 participants developed ESCC. Opium smoking (HR 1.85; 95 CI 1.18�2.90), drinking hot tea (�60°C) (HR 1.60; 95 CI 1.15�2.22), low intake of fruits (HR 1.48; 95 CI 1.07�2.05) and vegetables (HR 1.62; 95 CI 1.03�2.56), excessive tooth loss (HR 1.66; 95 CI 1.04�2.64), drinking unpiped water (HR 2.04; 95 CI 1.09�3.81), and exposure to indoor air pollution (HR 1.57; 95 CI 1.08�2.29) were significantly associated with increased risk of ESCC, in a dose-dependent manner. Combined exposure to these risk factors was associated with a stepwise increase in the risk of developing ESCC, reaching a more than 7-fold increase in risk in the highest category. Approximately 75 of the ESCC cases in this region can be attributed to a combination of the identified exposures. Conclusions: Analysis of data from the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran identified multiple risk factors for ESCC in this population. Our findings support the hypothesis that the high rates of ESCC are due to a combination of factors, including thermal injury (from hot tea), exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (from opium and indoor air pollution), and nutrient-deficient diets. We also associated ESCC risk with exposure to unpiped water and tooth loss. © 2019 AGA Institute

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 2
Subjects: سیستم گوارشی WI
آسیب شناسی QZ
Divisions: معاونت تحقیقات و فناوری
Depositing User: GOUMS
Date Deposited: 10 Apr 2019 09:51
Last Modified: 10 Apr 2019 09:51
URI: http://eprints.goums.ac.ir/id/eprint/9816

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