Golestan University of Medical Sciences Repository

Hazards of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and waterpipe in a Middle Eastern Population: A Cohort Study of 50 000 individuals from Iran

Etemadi, A. and Khademi, H. and Kamangar, F. and Freedman, N.D. and Abnet, C.C. and Brennan, P. and Malekzadeh, R. and Poustchi, H. and Pourshams, A. and Khoshnia, M. and Gharavi, S. and Norouzi, A. and Merat, S. and Jafari, E. and Islami, F. and Semnani, S. and Pharoah, P.D.P. and Boffetta, P. and Dawsey, S.M. (2016) Hazards of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and waterpipe in a Middle Eastern Population: A Cohort Study of 50 000 individuals from Iran. Tobacco Control.

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Abstract

Background There is limited information about the hazards of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and waterpipe in the Middle East. The aim of this study was to determine the association between different types of tobacco use and earlier death in the Golestan Cohort Study. Methods The Study includes 50 045 adults (aged 40-75 years) from north eastern Iran. The baseline questionnaire (2004-2008) assessed information about use of cigarettes, chewing tobacco (nass) and waterpipe. To assess the use of each type of tobacco compared with never tobacco users, we used Cox regression models adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, area of residence, education and other tobacco used, and stratified by sex, ethnicity and opium use. Results 17 of participants reported a history of cigarette smoking, 7.5 chewing tobacco (nass) and 1.1 smoking waterpipe, and these figures declined in the later birth cohorts. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 4524 deaths occurred (mean age 64.8 +9.9 years). Current (HR=1.44; 95 CI 1.28 to 1.61) and former (HR=1.35; 95 CI 1.16 to 1.56) cigarette smokers had higher overall mortality relative to never tobacco users. The highest cigarette-associated risk was for cancer death among current heavy smokers (HR=2.32; 95 CI 1.66 to 3.24). Current nass chewing was associated with overall mortality (HR=1.16; 95 CI 1.01 to 1.34), and there was a 61 higher risk of cancer death in people chewing nass more than five times a day. We observed an association between the cumulative lifetime waterpipe use (waterpipe-years=28) and both overall (HR=1.66; 95 CI 1.11 to 2.47), and cancer mortality (HR=2.82; 95 CI 1.30 to 6.11). Conclusions Regular use of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and waterpipe were associated with the risk of earlier death (particularly from cancer) in our cohort. © 2016 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 0; Article in Press
Subjects: مقالات نمایه شده محققین دانشگاه در سایت ,Web of Science ,Scopus
Divisions: UNSPECIFIED
Depositing User: GOUMS
Date Deposited: 12 Jun 2017 09:26
Last Modified: 12 Jun 2017 09:26
URI: http://eprints.goums.ac.ir/id/eprint/4882

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