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Cooking methods and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk areas of Iran

Hakami, R. and Etemadi, A. and Kamangar, F. and Pourshams, A. and Mohtadinia, J. and Firoozi, M.S. and Birkett, N. and Boffetta, P. and Dawsey, S.M. and Malekzadeh, R. (2014) Cooking methods and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk areas of Iran. Nutrition and Cancer, 66 (3). pp. 500-505. ISSN 01635581

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Cooking methods have been implicated in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancers, reflecting exposure to potential carcinogens as results of cooking. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire and a pretested cooking method questionnaire in 3 groups: 40 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases from a high-risk area in northeast of Iran, 40 healthy subjects from the same high-risk area, and 40 healthy subjects from a low-risk area in Southern Iran. We compared the frequency of boiling, grilling, and frying, and the frying score among these 3 groups. We also calculated "frying index" by multiplying the frequency of each fried food item by its frying score. Mean frying to boiling ratios were 18.2:1, 12.8:1, and 2.6:1 for cases, high-risk controls, and low-risk controls, respectively (P < 0.01). Reuse of cooking oil for frying was reported in 37.5 of the ESCC cases, 25 of high-risk controls, and 7.5 of low-risk controls (P < 0.001). Frying index was higher in the high-risk than in the low-risk controls (P < 0.001) and in cases than in the high-risk controls (P < 0.05) after adjusting for smoking, opium use, rural residence, education, and ethnicity. High-temperature cooking and frying may be associated with increased risk of ESCC in high-risk areas. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 1
Uncontrolled Keywords: oil; opiate, adult; age distribution; article; boiling point; cancer risk; carcinogenesis; clinical article; comparative study; controlled study; cooking; cooking method; educational status; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; ethnicity; female; food frequency questionnaire; food processing; frying; grilling; high risk population; high temperature; human; Iran; low risk population; male; risk assessment; rural area; smoking
Subjects: کهورت
مقالات نمایه شده محققین دانشگاه در سایت ,Web of Science ,Scopus
موارد کلی
Divisions: معاونت تحقیقات و فناوری
Depositing User: GOUMS
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2015 08:51
Last Modified: 16 Apr 2018 09:31
URI: http://eprints.goums.ac.ir/id/eprint/2570

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