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Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors: The first report from Iran using both microalbuminuria and urine sediment

Najafi, I. and Shakeri, R. and Islami, F. and Malekzadeh, F. and Salahi, R. and Yapan-Gharavi, M. and Hosseini, M. and Hakemi, M. and Alatab, S. and Rahmati, A. and Broumand, B. and Nobakht-Haghighi, A. and Larijani, B. and Malekzadeh, R. (2012) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors: The first report from Iran using both microalbuminuria and urine sediment. Archives of Iranian Medicine, 15 (2). pp. 70-75. ISSN 10292977 (ISSN)

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Abstract

Background: The incidence of major risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the world is on the rise, and it is expected that this incidence and prevalence, particularly in developing countries, will continue to increase. Using data on urinary sediment and microalbuminuria, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of CKD in northeast Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the prevalence of CKD in a sample of 1557 regionally representative people, aged � 18 years, was analyzed. CKD was determined based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and microalbuminuria. Life style data, urine and blood samples were collected. Urine samples without any proteinuria in the initial dipstick test were checked for qualitative microalbuminuria. If the latter was positive, quantitative microalbuminuria was evaluated. Results: 1557 subjects with a mean age of 56.76 ± 12.04 years were enrolled in this study. Based on the modifcation of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation, 137 subjects (8.89%) were categorized as CKD stages III-V. Based on urine abnormalities, the prevalence of combined CKD stages I and II was 10.63%, and based on macro- and microalbuminuria it was 14.53%. The prevalence of CKD was significantly associated with sex, age, marital status, education, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), ischemic heart disease (IHD), waist to hip ratio, myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Conclusion: CKD and its main risk factors are common and represent a definite health threat in this region of Iran. Using and standardizing less expensive screening tests in low resource countries could be a good alternative that may improve the outcome through early detection of CKD.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Unmapped bibliographic data: LA - English [Field not mapped to EPrints] J2 - Arch. Iran. Med. [Field not mapped to EPrints] C2 - 22292573 [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Nephrology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Digestive Disease Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Golestan Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Research center, Firoozgar Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Clinical Science Study Group Iran, IR of Iran Academy of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran [Field not mapped to EPrints] AD - Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran [Field not mapped to EPrints] DB - Scopus [Field not mapped to EPrints]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Chronic disease, Iran, Kidney, Nephelometry, adult, age, aged, article, blood analysis, cerebrovascular accident, chronic kidney disease, controlled study, cross-sectional study, diabetes mellitus, disease association, disease classification, education, female, gender, glomerulus filtration rate, heart infarction, human, hypertension, Iran, ischemic heart disease, lifestyle, major clinical study, male, marriage, microalbuminuria, prevalence, proteinuria, risk factor, screening test, urinalysis, urine sediment, waist hip ratio, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Albuminuria, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Educational Status, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Humans, Hypertension, Iran, Life Style, Male, Marital Status, Middle Aged, Myocardial Infarction, Myocardial Ischemia, Nephelometry and Turbidimetry, Prevalence, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Risk Factors, Sex Factors, Stroke, Urinalysis, Waist-Hip Ratio
Subjects: مقالات نمایه شده محققین دانشگاه در سایت ,Web of Science ,Scopus
موارد کلی
Divisions: معاونت تحقیقات و فناوری
Depositing User: GOUMS
Date Deposited: 15 Apr 2015 09:02
Last Modified: 12 May 2015 09:43
URI: http://eprints.goums.ac.ir/id/eprint/2044

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