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The global, regional, and national burden of oesophageal cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Kamangar, Prof. and Nasrollahzadeh, D. and Safiri, S. and Sepanlou, S.G. and Fitzmaurice, C. and Ikuta, K.S. and Bisignano, C. and Islami, F. and Roshandel, G. and Lim, Prof. and Abolhassani, H. and Abu-Gharbieh, E. and Adedoyin, Prof. and Advani, S.M. and Ahmed, M.B. and Aichour, M.T.E. and Akinyemiju, T. and Akunna, C.J. and Alahdab, F. and Alipour, V. and Almasi-Hashiani, A. and Almulhim, A.M. and Anber, N.H. and Ansari-Moghaddam, Prof. and Arabloo, J. and Arab-Zozani, M. and Awedew, A.F. and Badawi, A. and Berfield, K.S.S. and Berhe, K. and Bhattacharyya, K. and Biondi, Prof. and Bjørge, Prof. and Borzì, A.M. and Bosetti, C. and Carreras, G. and Carvalho, Prof. and Castro, Prof. and Chu, D.-T. and Costa, V.M. and Dagnew, B. and Gela, J.D. and Daryani, Prof. and Demeke, F.M. and Demoz, G.T. and Dianatinasab, M. and Elbarazi, I. and Emamian, M.H. and Etemadi, A. and Faris, P.S. and Fernandes, Prof. and Filip, I. and Fischer, F. and Gad, M.M. and Gallus, S. and Gebre, A.K. and Gebrehiwot, T.T. and Gebremeskel, G.G. and Gebresillassie, B.M. and Ghasemi-Kebria, F. and Ghashghaee, A. and Ghith, N. and Golechha, M. and Gorini, G. and Gupta, Prof. and Hafezi-Nejad, N. and Haj-Mirzaian, A. and Harvey, J.D. and Hashemian, M. and Hassen, H.Y. and Hay, Prof. and Henok, A. and Hoang, C.L. and Hosgood, H.D. and Househ, Prof. and Ilesanmi, O.S. and Ilic, Prof. and Irvani, S.S.N. and Jain, C. and James, S.L. and Jee, S.H. and Jha, R.P. and Joukar, F. and Kabir, A. and Kasaeian, A. and Kassaw, M.W. and Kaur, S. and Kengne, Prof. and Kerboua, Prof. and Khader, Prof. and Khalilov, Prof. and Khan, E.A. and Khoja, A.T. and Kocarnik, J.M. and Komaki, H. and Kumar, V. and La Vecchia, Prof. and Lasrado, S. and Li, B. and Lopez, Prof. and Majeed, Prof. and Manafi, N. and Manda, A.L. and Mansour-Ghanaei, Prof. and Mathur, M.R. and Mehta, V. and Mehta, D. and Mendoza, W. and Mithra, P. and Mohammad, K.A. and Mohammadian-Hafshejani, A. and Mohammadpourhodki, R. and Mohammed, J.A. and Mohebi, F. and Mokdad, A.H. and Monasta, L. and Moosavi, D. and Moosazadeh, M. and Moradi, G. and Moradpour, F. and Moradzadeh, R. and Naik, G. and Negoi, I. and Nggada, H.A. and Nguyen, H.L.T. and Nikbakhsh, R. and Nixon, M.R. and Olagunju, A.T. and Olagunju, T.O. and Padubidri, J.R. and Pakshir, Prof. and Patel, S. and Pathak, M. and Pham, H.Q. and Pourshams, Prof. and Rabiee, N. and Rabiee, Prof. and Radfar, A. and Rafiei, A. and Ramezanzadeh, K. and Rath, Prof. and Rathi, P. and Rawaf, Prof. and Rawaf, D.L. and Rezaei, N. and Roro, E.M. and Saad, A.M. and Salimzadeh, H. and Samy, A.M. and Sartorius, Prof. and Sarveazad, A. and Sekerija, M. and Sha, F. and Shamsizadeh, M. and Sheikhbahaei, S. and Shirkoohi, R. and Malleshappa, S.K.S. and Singh, Prof. and Sinha, D.N. and Smarandache, C.-G. and Soshnikov, S. and Suleria, H.A.R. and Tadesse, D.B. and Tesfay, B.E. and Thakur, B. and Traini, E. and Tran, K.B. and Tran, B.X. and Ullah, I. and Vacante, M. and Veisani, Y. and Vujcic, I.S. and Weldesamuel, G.T. and Xu, R. and Yazdi-Feyzabadi, V. and Yuce, D. and Zadnik, Prof. and Zaidi, Prof. and Zhang, Z.-J. and Malekzadeh, R. and Naghavi, M. and Collaborators, GBD 2017 Oesophageal Cancer (2020) The global, regional, and national burden of oesophageal cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 5 (6). pp. 582-597.

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Abstract

Background Oesophageal cancer is a common and often fatal cancer that has two main histological subtypes: oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Updated statistics on the incidence and mortality of oesophageal cancer, and on the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) caused by the disease, can assist policy makers in allocating resources for prevention, treatment, and care of oesophageal cancer. We report the latest estimates of these statistics for 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017, by age, sex, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD). Methods We used data from vital registration systems, vital registration-samples, verbal autopsy records, and cancer registries, combined with relevant modelling, to estimate the mortality, incidence, and burden of oesophageal cancer from 1990 to 2017. Mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) were estimated and fed into a Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) including risk factors. MIRs were used for mortality and non-fatal modelling. Estimates of DALYs attributable to the main risk factors of oesophageal cancer available in GBD were also calculated. The proportion of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma to all oesophageal cancers was extracted by use of publicly available data, and its variation was examined against SDI, the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index, and available risk factors in GBD that are specific for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (eg, unimproved water source and indoor air pollution) and for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (gastro-oesophageal reflux disease). Findings There were 473 000 (95 uncertainty interval 95% UI 459 000-485 000) new cases of oesophageal cancer and 436 000 (425 000-448 000) deaths due to oesophageal cancer in 2017. Age-standardised incidence was 5.9 (5.7-6.1) per 100 000 population and age-standardised mortality was 5.5 (5.3-5.6) per 100 000. Oesophageal cancer caused 9.78 million (9.53-10.03) DALYs, with an age-standardised rate of 120 (117-123) per 100 000 population. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised incidence decreased by 22.0% (18.6-25.2), mortality decreased by 29.0% (25.8-32.0), and DALYs decreased by 33.4% (30.4-36.1) globally. However, as a result of population growth and ageing, the total number of new cases increased by 52.3% (45.9-58.9), from 310 000 (300 000-322 000) to 473 000 (459 000-485 000); the number of deaths increased by 40.0% (34.1-46.3), from 311 000 (301 000-323 000) to 436 000 (425 000-448 000); and total DALYs increased by 27.4% (22.1-33.1), from 7.68 million (7.42-7.97) to 9.78 million (9.53-10.03). At the national level, China had the highest number of incident cases (235 000 223 000-246 000), deaths (213 000 203 000-223 000), and DALYs (4.46 million 4.25-4.69) in 2017. The highest national-level agestandardised incidence rates in 2017 were observed in Malawi (23.0 19.4-26.5 per 100 000 population) and Mongolia (18.5 16.4-20.8 per 100 000). In 2017, age-standardised incidence was 2.7 times higher, mortality 2.9 times higher, and DALYs 3.0 times higher in males than in females. In 2017, a substantial proportion of oesophageal cancer DALYs were attributable to known risk factors: tobacco smoking (39.0% 35.5-42.2), alcohol consumption (33.8% 27.3-39.9), high BMI (19.5% 6.3-36.0), a diet low in fruits (19.1% 4.2-34.6), and use of chewing tobacco (7.5% 5.2-9.6). Countries with a low SDI and HAQ Index and high levels of indoor air pollution had a higher proportion of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma to all oesophageal cancer cases than did countries with a high SDI and HAQ Index and with low levels of indoor air pollution. Interpretation Despite reductions in age-standardised incidence and mortality rates, oesophageal cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality and burden across the world. Oesophageal cancer is a highly fatal disease, requiring increased primary prevention efforts and, possibly, screening in some high-risk areas. Substantial variation exists in age-standardised incidence rates across regions and countries, for reasons that are unclear. © 2020 The Author(s).

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 3
Uncontrolled Keywords: adult; Africa south of the Sahara; alcohol consumption; Article; Asia; Australia; Austria; autopsy; biomass; body mass; Canada; cancer incidence; cancer mortality; cancer risk; China; demography; disability-adjusted life year; education; esophagus cancer; ethnicity; female; fertility; gastroesophageal reflux; Germany; global disease burden; health care access; health care quality; human; indoor air pollution; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; low income country; major clinical study; male; medical care; Middle East; middle income country; mortality rate; North Africa; priority journal; risk factor; smoking; South and Central America; squamous cell carcinoma; Turkmenistan; United States; Uzbekistan; Western Europe; adenocarcinoma; adolescent; aged; diet; drinking behavior; esophagus tumor; gastroesophageal reflux; middle aged; obesity; quality adjusted life year; risk factor; squamous cell carcinoma; tobacco use; very elderly; young adult, Adenocarcinoma; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Air Pollution, Indoor; Alcohol Drinking; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Diet; Esophageal Neoplasms; Female; Gastroesophageal Reflux; Global Burden of Disease; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Overweight; Quality-Adjusted Life Years; Risk Factors; Tobacco Use; Young Adult
Subjects: سیستم گوارشی WI
حرفه پزشکی W
آسیب شناسی QZ
مقالات نمایه شده محققین دانشگاه در سایت ,Web of Science ,Scopus
Divisions: معاونت تحقیقات و فناوری
Depositing User: GOUMS
Date Deposited: 14 Nov 2020 08:29
Last Modified: 14 Nov 2020 08:29
URI: http://eprints.goums.ac.ir/id/eprint/10855

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