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An Exploratory Study of Units of Reporting Opium Usein Iran: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies

Mohebbi, E. and Kamangar, F. and Rahimi-Movaghar, A. and Haghdoost, A.A. and Etemadi, A. and Amirzadeh, S. and Najafi, F. and Shafeie, F. and Fakhari, A. and Ghaleban, K. and Shahid-Sales, S. and Hosseini, Z.S. and Honarvar, M.R. and Majnooni, F. and Hadji, M. and Zendehdel, K. (2019) An Exploratory Study of Units of Reporting Opium Usein Iran: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies. Archives of Iranian medicine, 22 (10). pp. 541-545.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Measuring the amount of opium use is a challenge in epidemiologic studies. Self-report of amount of opium use at each consumption, widely used in the literature, usually fails to provide a good estimate. The purpose of this study is to systematically study the perceived weight units of reported opium use in Iran, and compare them to the standardized units of weight measurement. METHODS: An exploratory descriptive study was conducted in six major cities of Iran. Study participants were interviewed and asked to use a Play-Doh-like material to demonstrate the amount of opium they use. To obtain an estimate of the weight of the material used, we multiplied the volume by the density of the opium product. We experimentally determined the density of the commonly used opium products. We used medians and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) to report the typical amount of each unit. RESULTS: A total of 108 individuals participated in this study. The most frequently reported unit was "gram"; the median perceived weight for one gram (g) of opium was 0.24 (IQR: 0.16) g. The second most commonly used unit was nokhod with a median of 0.16 (IQR: 0.16) g, followed by mesghaal and hab/habeh, which were 1.28 (IQR: 0.81) and 0.16 (IQR: 0.16) g, respectively. The median perceived weight of mesghaal and gram in the studied cities was less than the expected standardized values. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the reported amount of opium use is highly inaccurate and unreliable, and is mainly subject to underestimation. © 2019 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 0
Subjects: QU بیوشیمی
فارماکولوژی QV
> دانشکده داروسازی > فارماکولوژی QV

مقالات نمایه شده محققین دانشگاه در سایت ,Web of Science ,Scopus
Divisions: معاونت تحقیقات و فناوری
Depositing User: GOUMS
Date Deposited: 31 Dec 2019 10:37
Last Modified: 31 Dec 2019 10:37
URI: http://eprints.goums.ac.ir/id/eprint/10486

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