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Encapsulation of Leflunomide (LFD) in a novel niosomal formulation facilitated its delivery to THP-1 monocytic cells and enhanced Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) nuclear translocation and activation

Hasani, M. and Sani, N.A. and Khodabakhshi, B. and Arabi, M.S. and Mohammadi, S. and Yazdani, Y. (2019) Encapsulation of Leflunomide (LFD) in a novel niosomal formulation facilitated its delivery to THP-1 monocytic cells and enhanced Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) nuclear translocation and activation. DARU, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 27 (2). pp. 635-644.

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Abstract

Background: Leflunomide (LFD) is an Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist and immunomodulatory drug with several side effects. Niosomes are novel drug delivery systems used to reduce the unfavorable effects of drugs by enhancing their bioavailability, controlling their release and targeting specific sites. Objectives: Here, we prepared niosomal formulations of LFD, evaluated their properties and delivered to THP-1 monocytic cells to study the activation and nuclear translocation of AhR. Methods: Four types of non-ionic surfactants were utilized to formulate niosomes by thin film hydration (TFH) method. Entrapment efficiency (EE ) of niosomes were quantified and dynamic light scattering (DLS) was performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the morphology of LFD niosomes. Dialysis method was used to measure LFD release rate. MTS assay was adopted to examine the viability of the cells upon each treatment. The nuclear transfer of AhR was investigated by Immunocytochemistry (ICC). The mRNA expression of IL1β and CYP1A1 were evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR. Results: Span 60: cholesterol (1:1) showed the highest EE (70.00 ± 6.24), largest particles (419.00 ± 4.16 nm) and the best uniformity with the lowest PDI (0.291 ± 0.007). TEM micrographs of Span 60 (1:1) nanoparticles showed conventional spherical vesicles with internal aqueous spaces. The release rate of LFD from Span 60 (1:1) vesicles was slower. Although the viability of LFD niosome-treated THP-1 cells was decreased, they were associated with lower cytotoxic effects compared with the free LFD counterparts. Both free and niosomal LFD treatments intensified the nuclear translocation of AhR. The mRNA expression of CYP1A1 was overexpressed while IL1β was downregulated in both free and niosomal LFD treated combinations. Conclusion: LFD encapsulation in Span 60: cholesterol (1:1) niosomal formulation could be introduced as a suitable vehicle of transferring LFD to THP-1 cells, with minimal cytotoxic effects, enhancing the AhR nuclear translocation and activation and inducing immunomodulatory properties. Figure not available: see fulltext.. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 0
Subjects: QS آناتومی انسان
QTفیزیولوژی
QU بیوشیمی
آسیب شناسی QZ
مقالات نمایه شده محققین دانشگاه در سایت ,Web of Science ,Scopus
Divisions: معاونت تحقیقات و فناوری
Depositing User: GOUMS
Date Deposited: 16 Dec 2019 06:32
Last Modified: 16 Dec 2019 06:32
URI: http://eprints.goums.ac.ir/id/eprint/10381

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